How and why is global production organized in chains or networks and what are the implications of this?全球生产是如何以及为什么以连锁或网络的形式组织的，这意味着什么？
Today multinational firms try to intergrade global production within their operations to gain competitive advantage and more profits. Global production networks theory is a relatively new theory that derived from earlier attempts, such as global value chains and global commodity chains, to explain how global production works and to consider all the possible actors that shape it. Corporations that want to follow the new trend in manufacturing and business conduct must take into consideration a welter of factors that shape and indicate the optimal process of global operations for maximizing profits. Global production strategies can offer multinational corporations many advantages if designed the right way as well as unavoidable disadvantages. Competitive dynamics and capitalist dynamics are the main forces for global production and the mobility of capital nowadays only adds to the ease that these networks are established and formed. Regional advantages and peculiarity must be taken into consideration before a firm decides the exact form of global production that wants to follow. Communication across the network and purchasing policies within the organization consist an important area for the smooth operation of the network, and corporations are aware of that, forming special divisions solely for those purposes. Ramifications of global production networks can be traced all around the globe, in developed or developing economies, and affect a bigger portion of everyday life and business conduct than what it is believed to be.
Yeung explains global production networks as “an organizational arrangement comprising interconnected economic and noneconomic actors coordinated by a global lead firm and producing goods or services across multiple geographic locations for worldwide markets. These actors include different types of firms as well as non-firm actors, such as the state, international organizations, labor groups, consumers, and civil society organizations, in diverse localities”.(Yeung.2015)Global production network analysis derived from the literature of global value chains and global commodity chains. Global value chains are defined as “the value added of all activities that are directly and indirectly needed to produce a product”. (Timmer, Los, et.al, 2014)Global commodity chains refer to “the full range of activities, including coordination, that are required to bring a specific product from its conception to its end use and beyond. This includes activities such as production, design, marketing, distribution, support to the final consumer, and governance of the entire process”. (Startosa,2010)Global production network analysis broadens beyond the interaction of suppliers and manufacturers and brings into the frame several actors that influence and shape global production, such as national governments, worker’s unions and non-governmental organizations. Also, global production network analysis accentuates the social and institutional embeddedness of production and examines power relations amongst actors, which differ as production is spread in multiple global sites. (Gereffi et.al ,2011)