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留学生课程作业:Absolute and Relative Ethics 绝对伦理与相对伦理

日期:2021年12月28日 编辑:ad202112271342284397 作者:无忧论文网 点击次数:226
论文价格:免费 论文编号:lw202112281343394562 论文字数:1088 所属栏目:帮写留学生作业
论文地区:其他 论文语种:中文 论文用途:本科课程论文 BA Termpaper

留学生课程作业范文:Absolute and Relative Ethics 。本人一篇国外大学课程作业,主要内容是通过讲述绝对伦理与相对伦理的概念,以及在企业管理中的实际运用问题。是一篇典型的留学生作业范例。通过阅读文献总结出作者个人的观点和看法。供各位参考。

留学论文

留学论文

There are many approaches to ethics. I will briefly outline two types of theoretical approach to ethics and their implications: principle-based approaches, and character and relationship-based approaches. 

很多方法来处理伦理问题。我将简要概述两种类型的伦理学理论方法及其含义:基于原则的方法和基于性格和关系的方法。

Principle-based approaches to ethics 基于原则的伦理学方法
It is important to understand this concept. This approach has often been based on two different ethical traditions – Kantianism and utilitarianism. Immanual Kant, was a German philosopher (1724-1804) in the eighteenth-century. He developed a theory of ethics.
理解这个概念很重要。这种方法通常基于两种不同的伦理传统——康德主义和功利主义。伊曼努尔·康德是十八世纪的德国哲学家。他发展了一种伦理学理论。
This approach to ethics is known as ‘deontological’ or duty-based. It plays a vital role in moral philosophy and also in professional ethics. ‘Persons’ are considered to have rational and self-determination – it means they are capable of making choices and acting upon them. For deontological ethics, the important thing isn’t the result or consequence of the action, but the action itself. If the action is wrong, in and of itself, then don’t do it.
这种伦理方法被称为“义务论”或基于义务的。它在道德哲学和职业道德中起着至关重要的作用。”人们认为人具有理性和自主性——这意味着他们有能力做出选择并据此行动。对于义务伦理学来说,重要的不是行为的结果或后果,而是行为本身。如果行为本身是错误的,那么就不要这样做。
This approach mainly has its focus on respect of the service user and also that he can make his own decisions. The main principles in this approach are to maintain confidentiality, obtain informed consent, no discrimination or offering misleading or false information. For Kant, it would be morally wrong to perform any action which is based on false information even though the end result is beneficial. According to this approach, we must all respect individual’s choices.
这种方法主要关注于对服务用户的尊重,以及他可以自己做出决定。这种方法的主要原则是保密、获得知情同意、不歧视或提供误导性或虚假信息。对康德来说,即使最终结果是有益的,但基于虚假信息的任何行为在道德上都是错误的。根据这一方针,我们都必须尊重个人的选择。
Utilitarianism, on the contrary, is a teleological theory. It is particularly associated with two British philosophers, Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) (Mill 1863/1972). Also known as the consequentialist theory of ethics. The main difference lies in the concept and it is in striking contrast as compared to the Kantian ethics. The moral worth (rightness or wrongness) of an action is said to lie in its consequences; hence if we have to decide if an action is right or wrong, we have to weigh pros and cons and also anticipate. According to this concept, if lying leads to good results, it would probably be good to lie. This theory relies on the fact that whether something is right or wrong depends on the result or end of that action. Theories that are interested in ends are called teleological. The name has originated from the Greek word for ‘end’ – telos. For a teleological ethical thinker, the end justifies the means. The believers of this theory argue that the rightness of an action is judged by the end it produces.
相反,功利主义是一种目的论理论。它特别与两位英国哲学家有关,杰里米·边沁和约翰·斯图尔特·密尔。也被称为结果主义伦理学理论。主要区别在于概念,与康德伦理学形成鲜明对比。据说行为的道德价值(对错)在于其后果;因此,如果我们必须决定一项行动是对还是错,我们就必须权衡利弊,并预测未来。根据这个概念,如果说谎能带来好的结果,那么说谎可能是件好事。这一理论基于这样一个事实,即某件事是对还是错取决于该行为的结果或结局。对目的感兴趣的理论称为目的论。这个名字来源于希腊语中“结束”一词——telos。对于目的论伦理思考者来说,目的证明了手段的正当性。这一理论的支持者认为,行为的正确性是由它产生的结果来判断的。
In my opinion, people consider both types of ethical principles in making decisions. We have to make a judgment that ensures that we are looking at individual’s best interest or the welfare of the society at a bigger scale.
在我看来,人们在做出决定时考虑两种伦理原则。我们必须做出判断,确保我们在更大范围内着眼于个人的最佳利益或社会福利。
Absolute and Relative Ethics 绝对伦理与相对伦理
Absolute ethics holds that there is one universal moral code which is final and applies equally to all men of all ages, and that changing situations or changing views make no difference whatsoever to this absolute moral code. Relative or relativistic ethics holds that the moral standard varies with different circumstances. There are so many cultural and religious differ