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Essay格式范文:The Rhetorical Situation of the relationship between science and religion

日期:2023年02月18日 编辑: 作者:无忧论文网 点击次数:458
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Essay格式范文-科学与宗教关系的修辞情境。本文是一篇留学生essay写作格式范文,主要内容是讲述“科学的终结是宗教的开始”可能是人们提出问题时最能说明问题的说法,即宗教和科学是对立的,因此不能共存。一个必须完全独立于另一个——一个代表绝对理性,另一个代表感性信念。最终,遵循这一推理,相信科学意味着否认上帝或任何宗教神灵的存在。然而,正如作者将在本篇Essay中阐述的那样,这可能并不总是正确的。下面就是这篇Essay格式范文的具体内容,供参考。

Essay格式范文

‘The end of science is the beginning of Religion’ is probably the most telling statement made by people that introduces the matter in question- that religion and science are polar opposites and cannot therefore co-exist. That one has to be completely independent of the other - one representing absolute rationality and the other representing perceptual belief. Ultimately then, following this line of reasoning, belief in Science means denying the existence of God or any religious deity. This, however, might not always be true as I shall expound in the course of this essay. 
Ian G. Barbour (1998) agrees, in his book Religion and science- Historical and contemporary issues, that Science and religion are two of the most fascinating and significant domains around the world that have over time clashed and caused chaos along with change. Religion came first and set its roots in human history while Science emerged over time and became extremely controversial for religions and cultures (Nicole Annis, 2018).
It is important to take note of the timeframe of emergence. The fact that religion emerged first meant that religions like Christianity were the sole providers for answers to the origin of humanity and existence. The answer to why a certain area received no rainfall that led to famine would probably have been that the residents of the said area were sinners and that famine was some form of punishment from God. The way to correct this situation would probably have been said to be offering sacrifices along with repentance, prayer and fasting. 
Ian G.Barbour在其著作《宗教与科学——历史与当代问题》中同意,科学与宗教是世界上两个最迷人、最重要的领域,随着时间的推移,它们随着变化而发生冲突并引发混乱。宗教首先出现并扎根于人类历史,而科学随着时间的推移而出现,并对宗教和文化产生了极大的争议。
重要的是要注意出现的时间框架。宗教首先出现的事实意味着,像基督教这样的宗教是人类起源和存在的唯一答案。为什么某个地区没有降雨导致饥荒,答案可能是该地区的居民是罪人,饥荒是上帝的某种惩罚。纠正这种情况的方法很可能是献祭、忏悔、祈祷和禁食。
Then came the ‘age of enlightment’ around the 18th century that according to Barbour, made up of a wide range of loss in faith in religions, such as Christianity, since science proved different facts than what had been preached all those years. Barbour claims that people lost touch with some teachings of religion because they could trust what they believed to be true with backing and actual proof from science. Science began to answer previously supposed and unanswered questions, backed-up with evidence that was not provided tangibly by religion (Barbour 1998 introduction). So the same area that did not receive rain would now embark more on planting trees, soil improvement and selective agriculture to evade famine and see direct results of the said scientific solutions.
然后是18世纪左右的“启蒙时代”,根据巴伯尔的说法,这是一个对宗教(如基督教)信仰的广泛丧失的时代,因为科学证明了不同于那些年所宣扬的事实。巴博声称,人们失去了与宗教教义的联系,因为他们可以相信他们相信的是真实的,有科学的支持和实际证据。科学开始回答以前假设的和未回答的问题,并以宗教没有提供的确凿证据为后盾。所以,同一个并没有降雨的地区现在将更多地种植树木、土壤改良和选择性农业,以避免饥荒,并看到上述科学解决方案的直接结果。
According to Alister McGrath in his book Science and Religion: a New Introduction, some scientists believe that religion and science will always challenge each other and this challenge might not stop until one of the two is eliminated. At the same time, some religious believers feel that science is a threat to their faith. Despite these two sides, historians do not feel the same way about science being in conflict with religion. McGrath maintains that historians feel that science has opened up religious questions as opposed to shutting them down forcing them to be insignificant (McGrath, P. 1). The same view was held by Barbour to some extent when he described as illogical, the view that was proposed by Edward O. Wilson, a socio-biologist, that religion will be replaced by science and become ancient history. In Edward’s argument, science will eventually prove all religions to be false because they will lack backing in tangible evidence. Barbour argues t