International Relations Essay写作参考:Debates on Nuclear Proliferation

日期:2022年12月03日 编辑: 作者:无忧论文网 点击次数:231
论文价格:免费 论文编号:lw202212022310218467 论文字数:5000 所属栏目:essay写作
论文地区:美国 论文语种:English 论文用途:大学作业 BA essay
International Relations Essay写作参考-关于核扩散的辩论。本文是一篇留学生国际关系专业essay写作范文,主要内容是讲述在广岛和长崎两个城市发射原子弹已经70多年了,在那里数十万人在几秒钟内死亡或受伤。揭露核武器的可怕破坏力不足以说服人类摆脱这些危险武器。相反,它们非凡的破坏力增加了核武器对许多国家和管理者的吸引力。在接下来的几年里,苏联、英国、法国和中国都追随美国,拥有核武器。在随后的几年里,以色列、印度、巴基斯坦和朝鲜加入了核俱乐部。     



Essay on Nuclear Proliferation Debate 核扩散辩论课程作业
It has been 73 years since the launch of an atomic bomb in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, where hundreds of thousands of people died or were injured in seconds. Exposing the terrible destructive power of nuclear weapons in Japan was not enough to convince humanity to get rid of these dangerous weapons. On the contrary, their extraordinary destructive power increased the attractiveness of nuclear weapons for many states and administrators. In the following years, Soviet Union, Britain, France and the People‘s Republic of China have followed the US and have nuclear weapons. In the following periods, Israel, India, Pakistan and North Korea joined the nuclear club with their atomic bombs.
Moreover, proliferation of nuclear weapons has brought about scholarly debates from many aspects since 1950s. Two schools of nuclear proliferation have been discussing the role of nuclear weapons in international relations for a long time. The optimists demonstrate the past as evidence when they claim that nuclear weapons will only be used for defensive purposes and to ensure international peace and security. Mearsheimer points out that while 50 million people were killed in Europe between 1900 and 1945, In the nuclear age, only 15.000 Europeans died because of the wars. (Mearsheimer, 2009, p.57) Furthermore, possible nuclear war started with the aim of conquest is regarded by Waltz as the product of feverish imaginations. (Waltz, 1995, p.12) On the other hand, nuclear proliferation pessimists such as Sagan claim that nuclear weapons may pose great danger for international peace and security by taking into consideration the potential drawbacks of nuclear world. (Sagan, 1994) In this essay whether nuclear proliferation is better for international security and future of humanity will be discussed by examining both pessimist and optimist approaches, particularly, taking Kenneth Waltz‘s and Scott Sagan’s arguments as point of departure.
General Overview on Waltz’s Ideas 沃尔兹思想概述
Waltz, who can be defined as defensive neorealist, suggests that the primary purpose of states is not to gain strength but to preserve their existence in an anarchical international system. He stresses that the international system rewards states that do not want to dominate the states, but rather protect the status quo. Each state can maintain its position in the system with a status quoist approach and at the end of this process it can ensure its security because of the balance of power in the international system. The balance of power model serves as the regulatory mechanism of the international system, and the security of the international system goes hand in hand with the security of states. (Waltz, 1979, p. 41)
When it comes to nuclear world, Waltz argues that in the case of minor conflict or escalation, nuclear weapons force parties to become more cautious concerning the possibility of deepening of the dispute. Both sides refrain from threatening their adversaries’ vital interest comprehending that even small number of weapons may give rise to catastrophic consequences. There is no point of applying nuclear weapons with offensive purposes, if states know that military a